Oxytherm+ System

Liquid-phase photosynthesis & respiration measurement with solid-state temperature control

  • PC operated electrode control unit with USB connectivity
  • Advanced electronic electrode chamber with solid-state Peltier temperature control between 3 – 40°C
  • Oxytherm+ Photosynthesis version fitted with automated white LED light source up to 4,000 µmol m-2 s-1
  • Suitable for liquid-phase samples between 0.2 – 2.5ml with 0 – 100% oxygen concentration
  • 24-bit high-resolution measurement of oxygen signals
  • Integral systems for measurement of pH & other ion-selective electrode (ISE) signals with 16-bit resolution
  • Onboard LCD readings of oxygen signal, auxiliary & ISE signals & chamber temperature
  • 8-channel capability via purchase of additional systems
  • OxyTrace+ Windows® software for data acquisition, hardware control & data analysis
  • Real-time 0V – 4.5V analogue output of oxygen electrode signal

The Oxytherm+ advanced oxygen electrode system provides PC control of oxygen uptake or evolution measurements across a broad range of research applications up to 100% oxygen concentration. 2 versions of the system provide the ultimate in flexibility allowing studies of a wide range of samples from state respiration changes in mitochondrial suspensions in the Oxytherm+R (Respiration) to light response measurements of isolated chloroplast suspensions in Oxytherm+P (Photosynthesis).

The Oxytherm+ system consists of a highly sensitive S1 Clark-type polarographic oxygen electrode disc mounted within 1 of 2 advanced electronic electrode chambers and connected to the new Oxytherm+ electrode control unit. The electrode chamber provides a highly versatile solution to measurements of dissolved oxygen in liquid-phase samples of between 0.2 – 2.5ml with integral precise solid-state temperature control configured from within the supplied software. Oxytherm+R (Respiration) is targeted more specifically towards cellular respiration assays. The Oxytherm+P (Photosynthesis) is fitted with 2 software-controlled, high-intensity white LED light sources mounted against the outer wall of the reaction vessel making this version more suited to photosynthesis-based research requirements.

The individual components of the Oxytherm+ System are described below:

S1 Oxygen Electrode Disc

Since its original design in the early 1970s by Tom Delieu and David Walker, the S1 Clark-type oxygen electrode disc remains largely unchanged – a true testament to the quality and reliability of the sensor. The S1 consists of a platinum cathode and silver anode set into an epoxy resin disc and is prepared for use by trapping a layer of 50% saturated KCl solution beneath an oxygen-permeable PTFE membrane. A paper spacer placed beneath the membrane acts as a wick to provide a uniform layer of electrolyte between anode and cathode.

S1 Oxygen Electrode Disc | Oxygen electrode & chlorophyll fluorescence measurement systems for cellular respiration & photosynthesis research

When a small voltage is applied across these electrodes (with the platinum negative with respect to the silver), the current which flows is at first negligible and the platinum becomes polarised (i.e. it adopts the externally applied potential). As this potential is increased to 700 mV, oxygen is reduced at the platinum surface, initially to hydrogen peroxide H2O2 so that the polarity tends to discharge as electrons are donated to oxygen (which acts as an electron acceptor). The current which then flows is stoichiometrically related to the oxygen consumed at the cathode.

S1 Oxygen Electrode Disc Reactions | Oxygen electrode & chlorophyll fluorescence measurement systems for cellular respiration & photosynthesis research

When connected to the electrode control unit, the S1 provides a fast, effective and accurate method of detecting small changes in oxygen concentration.

Oxytherm+ Control Unit

Oxytherm+ System | Hansatech Instruments | Oxygen electrode and chlorophyll fluorescence measurement systems for cellular respiration and photosynthesis research

The next generation Oxytherm+ oxygen electrode control unit combines striking aesthetics with enhanced features and functionality offering significant advances in flexibility and performance over previous generations of electrode control unit. As a complete system, Oxytherm+ provides a convenient yet powerful tool for measurements of oxygen evolution or uptake across a broad range of liquid-phase samples from chloroplast extractions to mitochondrial suspensions with oxygen concentrations up to 100%.

Oxytherm+ offers unrivalled price vs. performance combining simplicity of operation with an enviable feature set. The outstanding flexibility ensures Oxytherm+ is equally useful in both a teaching and research capacity. 24-bit resolution allows detection of minute changes in oxygen tension without needing to apply instrument gain. This results in beautiful, noise-free traces even when zoomed close in on areas of interest. Integral electronics provide precision sample and sensor temperature control via an advanced electronic electrode chamber between 3°C – 40°C.

The system allows real-time graphing of signals from auxiliary inputs and ion-selective electrodes providing scope for comprehensive analysis of oxygen activity simultaneously with signals such as pH, TPP+, calcium, potassium and hydrogen ions. Signals from all inputs are additionally displayed on an LCD screen mounted within the front panel of the Oxytherm+ control unit.

Up to 8 individual Oxytherm+ control units may be linked to a single PC and operated simultaneously from OxyTrace+ software providing a powerful, multi-channel system.

Oxytherm+ Electrode Chamber

Oxytherm+ Respiration Electrode Chamber | Hansatech Instruments | Oxygen electrode and chlorophyll fluorescence measurement systems for cellular respiration and photosynthesis research

Oxytherm+ is supplied in 2 versions; Oxytherm+R (Respiration) and Oxytherm+P (Photosynthesis). Each version is fitted with an advanced electronic oxygen electrode chamber with a specific feature sets to suit the intended purpose.

Both versions offer precision sample and sensor temperature control between 3°C – 40°C via an integral Peltier element. Chamber temperature is configured from within the OxyTrace+ Windows software with actual chamber temperature indicated on an LCD display mounted on the front panel of the Oxytherm+ electrode chamber. A tricolour LED indicates if the chamber is cooling (blue), heating (red) or at set temperature (green).

The reaction vessel of the Oxytherm+ electrode chamber is constructed from precision-bore borosilicate glass tube with a prepared S1 electrode disc forming the floor of the reaction vessel. The vessel is contained within an insulated block which is fitted with a Peltier element and a large heat sink. This combination allows Oxytherm+ to deliver precise, effective temperature control of sample and sensor without the requirement for a thermoregulated circulating water bath. Temperatures may be configured via OxyTrace+ software in 0.1°C increments anywhere between 3°C – 40°C.

The Oxytherm+ electrode chamber is fitted with a plunger with a central bore. The height of the plunger may be adjusted easily to suit liquid-phase sample volumes of between 0.2ml – 2.5ml whilst the central bore easily accommodates Hamilton-type syringes allowing additions/subtractions to/from the reaction vessel during an experiment. An optical port in the front of the chamber provides maximum visibility of the entire height of the reaction vessel allowing the plunger height to be easily adjusted to the correct height.

Oxytherm+R is perfectly suited to measurements of cellular respiration with its predecessor used widely all over the world in measurements of mitochondrial respiration. Oxytherm+R is fitted with a gas-tight version of the plunger.

The Oxytherm+P has additional functionality to provide optimum suitability for photosynthesis studies. 2 high-intensity white LED light sources are mounted against the outer wall of the reaction vessel. This provides uniform illumination of samples between 1ml – 2ml in volume up to 4,000 µmol m-2 s-1.

PFD light tables consisting of up to 20 individual light steps may be configured within the OxyTrace+ software for automatic execution during an experiment. Additional analysis tools are available within the software to automatically calculate quantum yield based on the measured rates of change during each light step.

A sliding shutter-plate allows the sample to be placed in full dark conditions for dark respiration measurement phases.

OxyTrace+ Software

OxyTrace+ is a multi-function Windows® program supplied with our range of PC-operated electrode control units for system configuration, calibration, data acquisition and analysis.

In liquid-phase systems such as Oxygraph+, Oxytherm+, Chlorolab 2+ and Chlorolab 3+, an automated 2-step calibration routine guides the user quickly and effectively through the system calibration process using electrode values measured from air-saturated and deoxygenated water. For gas-phase systems such as Leaflab 2+, an automated 3-step calibration routine using electrode values measured from ambient air, ambient +/- 1ml of injected/removed ambient air and a further measurement of ambient air is employed.

For electrode control units that provide automated light source control in systems such as Oxytherm+P, Chlorolab 2+, Chlorolab 3+ and Leaflab 2+, OxyTrace+ allows simple configuration of comprehensive PFD tables consisting of up to 20 individual light steps. Light intensity adjustments are performed automatically during the measurement. OxyTrace+ also allows calibration of the light source from a simple software routine. This requires the QTP1+ PAR/temperature sensor to be connected to the rear of the electrode control unit and placed into the reaction vessel prior to the addition of any liquids. In the Leaflab 2+ gas-phase system, calibration of the LH36/2R light source requires manual input of measured values at each individual calibration intensity step using the QSRED quantum sensor.

OxyTrace+ Software | Hansatech Instruments | Oxygen electrode and chlorophyll fluorescence measurement systems for cellular respiration and photosynthesis research

A tabbed interface allows a simple transition between the different data views including oxygen electrode (and if configured, auxiliary and external ion-selective electrode) realtime output, a split screen showing realtime rate of change above the oxygen signal and tabulated numerical data.

Post-acquisition analysis tools allow automatic calculation of oxygen rates from user-defined rate intervals. For Oxytherm+P, Chlorolab 2+, Chlorolab 3+ and Leaflab 2+ systems, additional analysis tools automatically calculate rates of change for defined PFD light steps with a calculation of quantum yield presented at the end of a measurement. All files are saved as Comma Separated Values (CSV) data files opening effortlessly in external data processing packages such as MS Excel®.

OxyTrace+ will run on all supported Microsoft operating systems.

System Components

Oxytherm+ systems are supplied with the following components:

Oxytherm+R

  • OXYT1+R: Oxytherm+ electrode control unit with Respiration Peltier electrode chamber sensor
  • S1: Oxygen electrode disc and SMB-SMB connection cable
  • A2: Membrane applicator to assist with smooth application of electrode membrane
  • S2/P: Pack of 5 magnetic followers
  • S3: Pack of 2 replacement borosilicate glass reaction vessels
  • S4: PTFE membrane (0.0125mm x 25mm x 33m)
  • S7C: Replacement O-rings for electrode chamber
  • S16: Cleaning kit for the S1 electrode disc.

Oxytherm+P

  • OXYT1+P: Oxytherm+ electrode control unit with Photosynthesis Peltier electrode chamber
  • S1: Oxygen electrode disc and SMB-SMB connection cable
  • QTP1: PAR/temperature sensor for calibration of LED light source with mounting collar
  • A2: Membrane applicator to assist with smooth application of electrode membrane
  • S2/P: Pack of 5 magnetic followers
  • S3: Pack of 2 replacement borosilicate glass reaction vessels
  • S4: PTFE membrane (0.0125mm x 25mm x 33m)
  • S7C: Replacement O-rings for electrode chamber
  • S16: Cleaning kit for the S1 electrode disc.

Technical Specifications

Oxytherm+ electrode control unit

  • Measuring range:
    • Oxygen: 0% – 100%, pH: 0pH – 14pH
    • Aux: 0V – 4.096V
  • Signal inputs:
    • S1 Oxygen electrode (SMB)
    • pH/ISE (BNC)
    • Aux (8 pin Mini Din)
    • QTP1 PAR/Temp probe (6-pin Mini-Din)
  • Resolution:
    • Oxygen: 0.0003% (24-bit)
    • pH: 0.0006pH (16-bit)
    • Aux: 62.5µV/bit (16-bit)
  • Polarising voltage: 700mV
  • Input sensitivity: 0nA – 9000nA
  • Magnetic stirrer: Software controlled 150rpm – 900rpm in % steps
  • Sampling rate: 0.1 – 10 readings/s
  • Electronics:
    • Microcontroller: 16-bit high-performance CPU running at 32 MHz
    • ADC: Dual, Low-power, 16/24-bit Sigma Delta
  • Display: 61 x 2 character blue LCD
  • Communications: USB2.0
  • Analogue output: 0V – 4.5V O2 signal
  • Dimensions (HWD): 250mm x 125mm x 65mm
  • Weight: 0.63 Kg
  • Power: 95V – 260V universal input mains supply. Output 12V DC 2.5A.

S1 oxygen electrode disc

  • Electrode type: Clark-type polarographic oxygen sensor
  • Electrode output: Typically 1.6µA at 21% O2
  • Residual current: Typically 0.04µA in 0% O2
  • Response time: 10 – 90% typically <5 seconds
  • Oxygen consumption: Typically <0.015µmol/hr-1

Oxytherm+R electrode chamber

  • Suitability: Liquid-phase respiration
  • Temp range: 3°C – 40°C (25°C ambient)
  • Response time: <10 min, accuracy: +/- 0.5°C
  • Sample chamber: Precision-bore, borosilicate glass tube
  • Sample volume: 0.2ml – 2.5ml
  • Plunger: Variable-height gas-tight plunger with central bore
  • Optical ports: Front viewing window
  • Dimensions: 132mm x 100mm x 90mm
  • Weight: 650g.

Oxytherm+P electrode chamber

  • Suitability: Liquid-phase photosynthesis
  • Temp range: 3°C – 40°C (25°C ambient)
  • Response time: <10 min, accuracy: +/- 0.5°C
  • Sample chamber: Precision-bore, borosilicate glass tube
  • Light source: 2 x white LED. Max. intensity: 4,000 µmol m-2 s-1
  • Light control: Automated adjustment via PFD table configuration in OxyTrace+ software
  • Sample volume: 0.2ml – 2.5ml (1ml – 2ml if sample illumination is required)
  • Plunger: Variable-height plunger with central bore
  • Optical ports: Front viewing window with sliding shutter-plate
  • Dimensions: 132mm x 100mm x 90mm
  • Weight: 660g.

Publications

One of the extensions of the Google search facility is Google Scholar. It allows you to search through vast archives of peer-reviewed published papers and journals that have been posted online.

Use the tool below to enter search terms as required. As an example, hansatech instruments Oxytherm+ System has already been entered into the search box. Press the "Search" button to view the Google Scholar results for this search string.

Admittedly, some of the results link to journals which require subscription in order to view the publications but even so, we have found this facility to be a valuable tool.

Google Scholar

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